Can long term use of benzodiazepines such as valium cause dementia or alzheimer’s disease?


Benzodiazepines are drugs that are used to treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. Some of the more common benzodiazepines include Valium, Xanax, and Ativan. While these drugs can be effective in the short-term, there is growing concern about the long-term effects of benzodiazepine use, particularly on cognitive function. This article will explore the potential link between benzodiazepine use and dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.

What are benzodiazepines?

Benzodiazepines are type of drug often used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. Common benzodiazepines include alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), and lorazepam (Ativan). Benzodiazepines work by enhancing the effects of the neurotransmitter GABA in the brain, which promotes relaxation and calmness.

While benzodiazepines are effective at treating anxiety and insomnia, they can also be habit-forming. When taken for long periods of time, benzodiazepines can cause physical and psychological dependence. Some of the potential side effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include memory problems, confusion, depression, and psychosis.

There is some evidence that long-term use of benzodiazepines may be associated with dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. One study found that people who took benzodiazepines for 3 years or more had a significantly increased risk of developing dementia compared to those who did not take benzodiazepines. However, it is not clear if benzodiazepines cause dementia or if there is another explanation for this association.

If you are taking benzodiazepines, it is important to talk to your doctor.

How do they work?

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that work by depressing the central nervous system. This causes a feeling of relaxation. Valium is one of the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines, and it is also one of the most potent.

Benzodiazepines work by binding to GABA receptors. GABA is a neurotransmitter that relaxes the brain and body. When benzodiazepines bind to GABA receptors, they increase the activity of GABA, which leads to increased inhibition in the brain.

This increased inhibition can produce a variety of effects, depending on the individual and the dose. At low doses, benzodiazepines can cause mild sedation and relaxation. At higher doses, they can cause sleepiness, impaired coordination, and slowed reaction time.

Benzodiazepines can be habit-forming and people who take them for long periods of time can develop tolerance and dependence. When people stop taking benzodiazepines, they can experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia, and irritability.

There is some evidence that long-term use of benzodiazepines may be associated with dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. However, this association is not strong.

Common side effects of benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines work by depressing the central nervous system, making them effective at calming people down. However, they can also cause a number of side effects, including:

Drowsiness: Benzodiazepines can cause drowsiness or sleepiness, which can be extremely dangerous if you are driving or operating heavy machinery.

Memory problems: Benzodiazepines can cause memory problems and make it difficult to concentrate. This can be especially problematic for older adults who are taking the drug for anxiety or insomnia.

Dependence: People who take benzodiazepines for a long time can develop tolerance and dependence on the drug. This means that they will need to take larger and larger doses to get the same effect. If you suddenly stop taking benzodiazepines, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. It can be extremely dangerous to stop taking benzodiazepines cold turkey.

If you are taking benzodiazepines, it is important to be aware of these potential side effects. If you are experiencing any of them, talk to your doctor about whether or not the drug is right for you.

Long-term use of benzodiazepines and dementia

While benzodiazepines are generally considered safe when used as directed, there is some concern that long-term use may be linked to dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. This is because these drugs can interfere with the way the brain processes information and form new memories. Additionally, benzodiazepines can increase the risk of falls and fractures in older adults.

If you or a loved one are taking a benzodiazepine, it’s important to talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of continuing treatment. In some cases, it may be possible to switch to a different medication that carries less risk of cognitive impairment.

Are there any alternatives to benzodiazepines?

If you’re looking for alternatives to benzodiazepines, there are a few options available. Buspirone is an anti-anxiety medication that is not as sedating as benzodiazepines. Beta-blockers such as propranolol can also be used to help manage anxiety.


There is still much research to be done on the long-term effects of benzodiazepines, but the evidence so far does not support the claim that they can cause dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. While there may be some risks associated with taking these drugs for extended periods of time, the benefits seem to outweigh the risks for most people. If you are considering taking a benzodiazepine for an extended period of time, speak with your doctor about the potential risks and benefits to help you make an informed decision.

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